Evolution of Paper Currency

The Chinese Empire achieved early success in replacing a metal currency with a paper currency where the material itself lacked intrinsic value. It probably made this transition much earlier than Europe because there were no serious competitors in the immediate neighborhood; the weak Chinese paper money could not be replaced with a strong metal currency.... Continue Reading →


South Asia Game Theory

In the social sciences, under the aegis of Game Theory, it is explained how in multi player systems, views and behaviour patterns that harm all players nevertheless manage to take root and spread. Arms races are a famous example. Many arms races bankrupt all those who take part in them, without really changing the military... Continue Reading →

The Conquest of Bengal

From the early eighteenth century onward, the trade of Bengal had grown ever more profitable to the East India Company. By 1750, this rich deltaic province, the outlet for the trade of the entire Ganges valley, accounted for 75 per cent of the Company’s procurement of Indian goods. Dean Mahomet, an Indian in Company employ... Continue Reading →

Why Japan is developed but Argentina isn’t

Understanding why some nations grow and others don’t holds the key to creating growth in the future. Simon Kuznets, the godfather of GDP measurement, opined that there are four kinds of countries in the world: developed countries, underdeveloped countries, Japan, and Argentina. What lay behind Kuznets’s categorization of countries in the middle of the twentieth... Continue Reading →

What Gorbachev was trying to do

Mikhail Gorbachev, the last leader of the Soviet Union, came to power in 1985 with a vision of reform. His plan for the future was led by two ideas: perestroika and glasnost. Under Gorbachev’s plan for perestroika, the Soviet Union would begin to move towards a hybrid Communist-Capitalist system, much like modern China. The Politburo... Continue Reading →

Borders of Two Nations Theory

Borders are created in their respective history - they say. We generally tend to think as if the Two Nations Theory (the basis for creation of Pakistan) came from nowhere and was perhaps an invention of Muslim League. However, its not that simple when we look at the history and see how these two regions... Continue Reading →

Technology and the new Globalization

Between 1820 and 1990, the share of world income going to today’s wealthy nations soared from twenty percent to almost seventy. Since then, that share has plummeted to where it was in 1900. As Richard Baldwin explains, this reversal of fortune reflects a new age of globalization that is drastically different from the old. In... Continue Reading →

The impact of Social Media

During an online conversation, Khalil Qureshi a Facebook Friend posted following comment to address the issues related to "What Impact Social Media is leaving on Ordinary People". I thought the comment is so well thought out and explains a complex issue in great detail that it should be posted on my Blog as a separate... Continue Reading →

Nietzsche on Writing Equipment

Friedrich Nietzsche was desperate. Sickly as a child, he had never fully recovered from injuries he suffered in his early twenties when he fell from a horse while serving in a mounted artillery unit in the Prussian army. In 1879, his health problems worsening, he’d been forced to resign his post as a professor of... Continue Reading →

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